Assignment of Introduction To Linguistics “HOMONYM, SYNONYMS, ANTONYM, POLYSEMY, HYPONYM”


Homonym :

  • Different word that we pronounced the same but may or may not be spelled the same.
  • (semantics) (strict sense) A word that both sounds and is spelled the same as another word but has a different meaning.
  • (loosely) A word that sounds or is spelled the same as another word but has a different meaning, technically called a homophone(same sound) or a homograph (same spelling).
  • (taxonomy) A name for a taxon that is identical in spelling to another name that belongs to a different taxon.
  • A word that has the same pronunciation as another. Homonyms differ from each other in
    • Meaning
    • Origin, and
    • Usually spelling.

The List of Homonym:

A very short little insignificant English

Eh an interrogative utterance

Acts things done

Ax chopping tool

Ad short for advertisement

Add short for addition

Adds performs addition

Ads more than one advertisement

Adze axe – like tool

Ade fruit beverage

Aid to assist

Aide an assistant

Aerie eagle’s nest

Airy breezy

 

Synonyms:

–      Different words with identical or very similar meanings. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. The word comes from Ancient Greek syn (σύν) (“with”) and onoma (ὄνομα) (“name”).

–      Synonym is a word with the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as another word in the same language.

Synonyms can be any part of speech (e.g. nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs or prepositions), as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech.

The List of Synonym:

No WORD SYNONYM INFO. Meaning
1 About Approximately Adverb Kira-Kira
2 Abstract Summary Noun Ringkasan
3 To Answer To reply Verb Menjawab, Membalas
4 To Appear To Seem Verb Nampak
5 To glitter To sparkle Verb Berkelap-kelip
6 To assure To guarantee Verb Menjamin
7 Awful Terrible Adjective Buruk sekali
8 To behave To act Verb Berkelakuan
9 To begin To start Verb Memulai
10 Brave Courageous Adjective Berani
11 Last Final Adjective Terakhir
12 Concord Harmony Noun Keselarasan
13 Contrary Opposite Adjective Berlawanan
14 Correct Right Adjective Benar
15 To denote To indicate, to represent Verb Menunjukkan
16 To emphasize To stress Verb Menekankan
17 Extra Additional Adverb Tambahan
18 To fabricate To manufacture Verb Membuat
19 Select Choose Verb Memilih
20 Formerly Previously Adverb Sebelumnya
21 Fortunate Lucky Adjective Untung
22 Impolite Rude Adjective Tidak sopan
23 Lucid Clear Adjective Jelas
24 Joy Delight Noun Kesenangan
25 Overseas Abroad Adverb Luar Negeri

 

Antonym:

–      A word that means the opposite to another word. They can be grouped into 3 types: Gradable, Complementary, andRelational Antonyms.

  1. Gradable antonyms, the members of a pair differ in terms of degree. The denial of one is not necessarily the assertion of other. For Example: Rich x Poor ; High x Low ; Wide x Narrow.
  1. Complementary Antonyms, the members of a pair in this type are complementary to each other. Not only the assertion of one means the denial of the other, the denial of one also means the assertion of the other. For Example: Male/Female, Alive/Dead, Married/Single.
  1. Relational Antonyms, they show the reversal a relationship between two entities. For example: Husband/Wife, Teacher/Pupil, Doctor/Patient, Buy/Sell, Above/Below.

The List of Antonym:

No WORD MEANING INFO. ANTONYM MEANING
1 Easy Mudah Adjective Difficult Sulit
2 Husband Suami Noun Wife Istri
3 King Raja Noun Queen Ratu
4 Near Dekat Adjective Far Jauh
5 Fat Gemuk Adjective Skinny Kurus
6 Dull Tumpul Adjective Sharp Tajam
7 Poor Miskin Adjective Rich Kaya
8 Lock Mengunci Verb Unlock Membuka Kunci
9 Last Yang Terakhir Adjective First Yang Pertama
10 Often Sering Adverb Seldom Jarang
11 Slow Lambat Adjective Fast Cepat
12 Humble Rendah Hati Adjective Arrogant Sombong
13 Accept Menerima Verb Refuse Menolak
14 Prompt Cepat Adjective Late Terlambat
15 Precious Berharga Adjective Worthless Tidak Berharga
16 Perish Binasa, Mati Verb Survive Hidup
17 Inward Dalam Adverb Outward Keluar
18 Nervous Gugup Adjective Calm Tenang
19 Ancient Kuno Adjective Modern Modern
20 Arrival Kedatangan Noun Departure Keberangkatan
21 Miniature Kecil Adjective Gigantic Sangat Besar
22 Artificial Buatan Noun Natural Alamiah
23 Dark Gelap Adjective Light Terang
24 Despair Putus Asa Verb Hope Berharap
25 Friend Teman Noun Enemy Musuh

 

Polysemy:

The List of Polysemy:

No WORD MEANING 1 MEANING 2
1 aggregation coming together result of coming together;
those who come together
2 Assembly coming together result of coming together;
those who come together
3 Bank keep secure place where things are kept secure
4 Bed something sleepers lie upon what a stream lies on
5 Book a bound collection of pages text distributed as a book
6 Capitalist person who owns a business supporter of capitalism;
person who owns a business
7 congregation coming together result of coming together;
those who come together
8 Court seek favor assembly of those seeking favor;
the president of the court (“judge”)
9 delegation granting authority to another those to whom authority has been granted
10 Head part of the body above neck person in charge of an organization
11 Hospital activity or place for lodging guests place for treating the ill
12 Hunt seeking something, those engaged in a search and taking
especially game animals,
to kill or capture
13 March moving together on foot those who move together on foot
14 Milk activity of extracting milk result of extraction
15 militia military or defense activity those engaged in or subject to being required to engage in defense activity
16 ministry serving the needs of others those engaged in serving the needs of others
17 mole a small burrowing mammal someone who burrows for information hoping to go undetected
18 movement motion, change in position result of motion or change; those who move or change
19 nurse serving the needs of others someone engaged in serving the needs of others
20 police make orderly (lawful) law enforcers
21 service doing for others those who serve (especially military)
22 Viking raiding those who raid (especially of Scandinavian origin)
23 wedding joining a couple in matrimony those engaged in joining a couple in matrimony; time or place of doing so
24 wood a piece of a tree a geographical area with many trees
25 Crawl to move slowly on hands and knees to move slowly in traffic;
to be covered with moving things;
to swim the crawl

 

Hyponym:

  • word with a particular meaning that is included in the meaning of a more general word.
  • A word that represents different categories covered by a superordinate: Superordinate: Animal, Hyponym: Cat, horse, etc.Superordinate is a general term that includes various different words representing narrower categories, called Hyponyms: SUPERORDINATE EXAMPLE:   Superordinate: Animal, Hyponym: Cat, horse, etc.

The List of Hyponym:

  1. Superordinate: transportation ; Hyponym: car, motorcycle, pedicab, train, bus, cycle, truck, ferry, speed boat, helicopter, airplane.
  2. Superordinate: day ; Hyponym: Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday.
  3. Superordinate: month ; Hyponym: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.
  4. Superordinate: color ; Hyponym: white, black, pink, green, red, grey, orange, violet, yellow, blue.
  5. Superordinate: religion ; Hyponym: Moslem, Christian, Catholic, Hinduism, Buddhism.
  6. Superordinate: sport ; Hyponym: football, baseball, basketball, aerobic, badminton, fencing, diving, chess, fighting, golf, marathon, grand prix.
  7. Superordinate: fruit ; Hyponym: banana, orange, grape, mango, jackfruit, durian, watermelon, strawberry, cherry, honeydew melon, pineapple, pear, kiwi, pomegranate, star fruit.
  8. Superordinate: job ; Hyponym: teacher, doctor, soldier, lawyer, farmer, fisherman, gardener, civil servant, guide, policeman, driver, translator.
  9. Superordinate: animal ;  Hyponym: bear, crab, dolphin, bee, butterfly, goose, eagle, leopard, frog, elephant, crocodile, penguin, shark, rabbit, pigeon, monkey.
  10. Superordinate: human body ; Hyponym: face, hair, nose, lips, neck, throat, arm, back, head, finger, stomach, knee, eye, cheek, forehead, eyeball, ear, tongue, tooth, chin, brain, heart, muscle, leg, foot, lung.
  11. Superordinate: family ; Hyponym: parent, child, mother, father, son, brother, daughter, sister, uncle, aunt, grandfather, grandmother, husband, wife.
  12. Superordinate: goods ; Hyponym: bottle, book, ring, doll, lamp, laptop, bag, paper, pen, cupboard.
  13. Superordinate: country ; Hyponym: Indonesia, United State, North Korea, Japan, Germany, France, Holland, Italy, Spain, England, Turkey, Portugal, Australia.
  14. Superordinate: language ; Hyponym: Indonesian, Malay, Arabic, Russian, Japanese, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Mandarin, English, Spanish.
  15. Superordinate: adjective ; Hyponym: diligent, lazy, easy, difficult, hard, low, high, tall, short, clever, smart, stupid, angry, calm, wise, poor, rich, bad, good.
  16. Superordinate: weather ; Hyponym: summer, winter, autumn, spring, dry season, rainy season.
  17. Superordinate: subject ; Hyponym: English, chemistry, physic, biology, economy, mathematic, art, information and technology.
  18. Superordinate: flower ; Hyponim: rose, lily, jasmine, orchid.
  19. Superordinate: universe ; Hyponym: space, comet, star, earth, moon,
  20. Superordinate: music ; Hyponym: pop, jazz, rock, blues, pop rock.
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