Teori Behavioristik, Teori Kognitif, dan Teori Humanistik


TEORI BEHAVIORISTIK

  1. Memerlukan tujuan – tujuan pembelajaran
  2. Menganalisis lingkungan kelas yang ada saat ini termasuk mengidentifikasi pengetahuan awal (entry behavior) siswa.
  3. Menentukan materi pelajaran
  4. Memecah materi pelajaran menjadi bagian kecil – kecil, meliputi pokok bahasan, topik tersebut.
  5. Menyajikan materi pelajaran
  6. Memberikan stimulus, dapat berupa : pertanyaan baik lisan maupun tertulis, tes / kuis, latihan, atau tugas – tugas.
  7. Mengamati dan mengkaji respon yang diberikan siswa.
  8. Memberikan penguatan / reinforcement (mungkin penguatan positif / negatif), ataupun hukuman.
  9. Memberikan stimulus baru.
  10. Mengamati dan mengkaji respons yang diberikan siswa.
  11. Memberikan pengamatan lanjutan atau hukuman.
  12. Evaluasi hasil belajar.

TEORI KOGNITIF

  1. Menentukan tujuan pembelajaran
  2. Melakukan identifikasi karakteristik siswa.
  3. Memilih materi pelajaran
  4. Menentukan topic – topic yang dapat dipelajari
  5. Menentukan kegiatan belajar sesuai topic
  6. Mengembangkan bahan – bahan belajar
  7. Mengembangkan metode dan merangsang kreatifitas siswa.
  8. Senantiasa dilakukan penerapan
  9. Melakukan penilaian proses dan hasil belajar.

TEORI HUMANISTIK

  1. Menentukan tujuan pembelajaran
  2. Menentukan materi pembelajaran
  3. Entry behavior
  4. Mengidentifikasi topic – topic pelajaran
  5. Merancang fasilitas belajar seperti lingkungan dan media pembelajaran
  6. Membimbing siswa belajar secara aktif
  7. Membimbing siswa untuk memahami hakekat makna dari pengalaman belajar.
  8. Membimbing siswa dalam mengaplikasikan konsep – konsep baru ke situasi nyata.
  9. Membimbing siswa membuat konseptualisasi pengalaman belajarnya.
  10. Mengevaluasi proses dan hasil belajarnya.

In English (Maaf ye kalau grammarnya salah-salaho):

BEHAVIORISTIC THEORY
1. Determine learning goals
2. Analyzing the current environment of this class include identifying prior knowledge of student (entry behavior).
3. Determine the subject matter
4. Breaking the subject matter  into small parts, including subject, topic.
5. Presenting the subject matter
6. Giving stimulus, it can be question, both oral and written questions, tests / quizzes, exercises, or tasks.
7. Observe and assess the responses given by students.
8. Giving reinforcement (perhaps positive / negative reinforcement), or punishment.
9. Giving a new stimulus.
10. Observe and assess the responses given by students.
11. Giving continued observation or punishment.
13. Evaluation of learning outcomes.

COGNITIVE THEORY
1. Determining learning goals
2. Identifying  the characteristics of students.
3. Choosing the subject matter
4. Determining the topics that can be learnt.
5. Determining the learning activities in accordance with topic
6. Developing learning materials.
7. Developing methods and stimulating the student creativity.
8. Always be done applying
9. Doing Assessment of learning process and outcomes.
HUMANISTIC THEORY
1. Determining learning goals
2. Determining the learning material
3. Entry behavior
4. Identifying the lesson topics.
5. Designing learning facilities such as environmental and instructional media
6. Guiding students in active learning
7. Guiding students to understand the essence of the meaning of the learning experience.

8. Guiding students in applying new concepts to real situations.
9. Guiding students to make the conceptualization of learning experiences.
10. Evaluating processes and outcomes of learning.

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